- RSS Channel Showcase 7031834
- RSS Channel Showcase 4730460
- RSS Channel Showcase 3488398
- RSS Channel Showcase 9574448
Articles on this Page
- 05/15/14--08:24: _Krystian Zimerman, ...
- 05/20/14--11:42: _"Rostropovich and R...
- 05/22/14--23:21: _Jean-Efflam Bavouze...
- 05/30/14--03:48: _Jean-Bernard Pommie...
- 05/31/14--22:56: _Denis Matsuev: "......
- 06/06/14--18:25: _...a Spoleto (1967)...
- 06/09/14--15:38: _"Missionary of the ...
- 06/10/14--08:42: _Inna Heifetz, piani...
- 06/10/14--08:47: _"I won a competitio...
- 06/11/14--17:45: _Stefano Catucci (Ri...
- 03/30/14--18:14: _1991, Concerto all'...
- 06/16/14--10:50: _Anna Ivanovna Troja...
- 06/17/14--12:54: _Alexei Volodin
- 06/19/14--14:15: _Leif Ove Andsnes (q...
- 06/22/14--01:00: _Valery Gergiev: "Yo...
- 06/30/14--12:14: _Bruno Monsaingeon (...
- 07/01/14--15:01: _"New Releases XXIII...
- 07/07/14--09:09: _Bashmet said of him...
- 07/07/14--16:57: _Sviatoslav Richter:...
- 07/10/14--10:24: _David Samoilov's Po...
- 05/15/14--08:24: Krystian Zimerman, Denis Matsuev, Alexander Melnikov (cit.)
- 05/20/14--11:42: "Rostropovich and Richter" by K. Bazarov (excerpt)
- 05/22/14--23:21: Jean-Efflam Bavouzet (cit.)
- 05/30/14--03:48: Jean-Bernard Pommier (quote)
- 05/31/14--22:56: Denis Matsuev: "...quel ghiaccio improvvisamente si sciolse"
- 06/06/14--18:25: ...a Spoleto (1967): G.C.Menotti
- 06/09/14--15:38: "Missionary of the beatiful" Novosty Press (1967)
- 06/10/14--08:42: Inna Heifetz, pianist (quote)
- 06/10/14--08:47: "I won a competition with Richter..." (Rostropovich)
- 06/11/14--17:45: Stefano Catucci (Richter su Anna Karenina)
- 03/30/14--18:14: 1991, Concerto all'Odeion di Pompei (Beethoven)
- 06/16/14--10:50: Anna Ivanovna Trojanovskaja (painter)
- 06/17/14--12:54: Alexei Volodin
- 06/19/14--14:15: Leif Ove Andsnes (quote)
- 06/22/14--01:00: Valery Gergiev: "You have to put Parsifal on stage" (Richter)
- 06/30/14--12:14: Bruno Monsaingeon (extr. de interview, 2013)
- 07/01/14--15:01: "New Releases XXIII": novità Audio/Video - Luglio 2014
- 07/07/14--09:09: Bashmet said of him...(quotes)
- 07/10/14--10:24: David Samoilov's Poem “Richter”
Par Bertrand Dermoncourt
Richter, je lui ai écrit une lettre pour le remercier en tant que pianiste de la jeune génération pour ce qu'il faisait pour nous et la musique. Il m'a répondu. Nous nous sommes rencontrés avec nos épouses respectives à Paris. Puis nous avons eu l'envie de monter un festival ensemble au Japon. Mais ce projet n'a jamais vu le jour et il est décédé.
Par Propos recueillis par Stéphane Friédérich
S.F.: Vous rappelez-vous le premier récital auquel vous avez assisté ?
Par Stéphane Friédérich
S.F.: Parmi toutes les personnalités que vous avez côtoyées, une d’entre elles tient une place particulière : Sviatoslav Richter…
"Comment caractériser Richter… Pour moi, il était une véritable montagne ! Je n’ai jamais été son élève. Pourtant, je l’ai beaucoup suivi, j’ai joué pour lui. Comme Bruno Monsaingeon le montre dans la biographie qu’il lui a consacrée [Écrits, conversations, Ed. Van de Velde, ndlr], il était bien davantage qu’un pianiste. Quand vous êtes très jeune et que vous jouez devant une telle personnalité, vous êtes soumis à une autorité écrasante. Mais ce que j’ai appris, c’est en lui faisant la tourne durant une série de récitals en Espagne. Il s’arrêtait dans des villages et jouait pour des gens qui n’avaient jamais entendu du Beethoven ou du Haydn. Son charisme était tel qu’il hypnotisait le public et moi avec ! Il m’est arrivé d’être paralysé, incapable de tourner les pages. Je me rappelle les passages exacts durant lesquels j’ai éprouvé cette sensation unique. Je regrette de ne pas avoir profité davantage de sa présence. J’étais beaucoup trop jeune."
|PHOTO by Mikhail Ozerskiy|
Pendant qu’on y est : que pensez-vous du Haydn de Richter ? N’est-ce pas la proverbiale main de fer dans un gant de velours ?
Qui n’était pas une personne très facile...
pianist and conductor
Quote from an interview (2011)
In several interviews you mentioned that you had the chance to know some of your IDOLS.
Lei avrà assistito a decine di concerti al Ciaikovski Concert Hall. Ce n'e qualcuno di cui serba memoria indelebile?
Gian Carlo Menotti
...a Spoleto (1967)
|Al Festival di Spoleto (1967)|
- "Ma che cosa fa a Spoleto?"- "Sono venuto a vedere, perché ho sentito di questa città che si sta facendo conoscere nel mondo".- "Già che è qua, perché non suona per noi?."- "Va bene. Quando?."- "Fra venti minuti, abbiamo un concerto: cambio il programma, e lei suona!".E ha detto:- "Bene, con piacere".- "Io però non ho soldi per pagarla!".- "No, no. Io non voglio essere pagato: per Spoleto, suono gratis, basta che il consolato russo non lo sappia!". (ride)
MISSIONARY OF THE BEAUTIFUL
"I grew up with him as my idol: he was it. I will never forget the first time I heard him. On TV. I was stunned for several days. I know that I will never play Beethoven's op. 2, no. 1 or op. 10, no. 3, because his performance is imprinted on my mind. The interpretation would be his, not mine. Richter came from Odessa. His family suffered from the war there, and he swore never to come back. Everyone came to Odessa but Richter. "
When Heifetz was in Moscow, Richter was not playing there. Later she went to France to hear him — the friend she depended on neglected to get tickets.
An Interview With Inna Heifetz BY MICHAEL ULLMAN, Fanfare vol.18, 1995.
"I won a competition with Richter..."
Recalling how effortlessly he accompanied his wife Galina Vishnevskaya in Rachmaninov songs - recently reissued by DG - I ask him the width of his hand- spread on the piano.
L'Unità giovedì 19 settembre 1991
(concerto del 14 settembre)
”Such was the situation at the time that Richter had no piano or place to practice, so I offered him, ‘If you find that my piano is okay, go ahead.’”
Narrator: ”This is the room where Richter went to practice and this is the piano he used.”
”It was during the war. Sometimes, together we would get Irish potatoes and put them on the stove and boil them for a meal. It was so cold that the fire would sometimes die out, it was so small. In addition, the fire was our source of light. ”
”Slava practiced so compulsively that I thought he didn’t know the meaning of fatigue. This is one painting that I did of him.”
|Alexei Volodin. Foto di Marco Borggreve|
Leif Ove Andsnes
Quote, from Newsday Inc. 2005
(extr. de interview, tutti-magazine 2013)
Philippe Banel: Filmer Glenn Gould était sans doute très différent...
Avec Gould, pour les premiers films que nous avons tournés, les échanges de propos sont totalement spontanés dans un cadre qui, lui, est totalement scénarisé et mis en scène. Mais pour les films consacrés à Bach, les choses ont été différentes dans la mesure où, en raison d'un mal à l'épaule, il a annulé durant 3 ans toutes les séances de tournage que nous avions prévues. Mais une fois par mois, j'allais à Toronto pour le retrouver et nous avons pondu les textes ensemble. Nous les avons ensuite appris comme des comédiens pour le dire comme des comédiens. Dans ce cas, on aboutit bien sûr au sommet du contrôle. Mais Gould était aussi un formidable acteur et son génie a apporté au film une spontanéité extraordinaire.
Et avec Sviatoslav Richter ?
Votre carrière cinématographique est jalonnée de rencontres riches et sans doute déterminantes. Y a-t-il cependant des rendez-vous manqués ou des rencontres espérées qui ne se sont pas produites ?
L e R e c e n s i o n i
1. SUITE INGLESE NR.1 in La maggiore BWV 8062. SONATA NR.5 in re minore BWV 9643. WTC LIBRO I: PRELUDIO E FUGA in Fa maggiore BWV 8564. WTC LIBRO I: PRELUDIO E FUGA in fa minore BWV 8575. SUITE INGLESE NR.6 in re minore BWV 811
1. SUITE INGLESE NR.6 : SARABANDA2. SUITE INGLESE NR.6 : GAVOTTA3. SUITE INGLESE NR.6 : PRELUDIO
Sonata No. 6 in E minor, D. 566
Sonata No. 11 in F minor, D. 625
Sonata No. 13 in A major, D. 664
Recorded at the Grand Hall of the Moscow Conservatory on October 18, 1978
Sonata No. 18 in G major, D. 894
Sonata No. 6 in E minor, D. 566
Recorded at the Grand Hall of the Moscow Conservatory on May 2, 1978
Sonata No. 9 in B major, D. 575
Sonata No. 19 in C minor, D. 958
Recorded at the Grand Hall of the Moscow Conservatory on June 8, 1979 (D575), October 6, 1971 (D958)
1 Scherzo No. 2 in D flat major, D. 593 – 6.05
2 Andante in A major, D. 604 – 4.46
3 4 Landlers from D. 366 in the order: D. 366/1 A major – D. 366/3 A minor – D. 366/5 A minor – D. 366/4 A minor – D. 366/5 – D. 366/4 – D. 366/1 – 5.36
4 Allegretto in C minor, D. 915 – 7.16
Moments musicaux, D. 780
5 No. 1 Moderato, C major – 5.38
6 No. 3 Allegro moderato, F minor – 2.04
7 No. 6 Allegretto, A flat major – 12.00
8 2 Ecossaises from D. 734 and 4 Ecossaises from
D. 421 in the order: D. 734/1 A minor – D. 734/2
A major – D. 734/1 – D. 734/2 – D. 421/1 A flat major –
D. 421/3 E flat major – D. 421/1 – D. 421/2 А flat major – D. 421/1 – D. 421/6 A flat major – 2.54
9 2 German Dances from D. 790 in the order: D. 790/8
A flat minor – D. 790/11 А flat major – D. 790/8 – 2.58
10 Impromptu in G flat major, D. 899/3 – 7.02
11 March in E major, D. 606 – 4.47
12 Impromptu in E flat major, D. 899/2 – 4.39
13 Impromptu in A flat major, D. 899/4 – 7.43
Recorded at the Grand Hall of the Moscow Conservatory on May 2, 1978 (1–7), October 18, 1978 (8–10), May 3, 1978 (11–13)
La prima volta che lo sentii suonare fu nella Sala Grande del Conservatorio di Mosca nel maggio 1957. Iniziò il programma con l'ultima sonata di Schubert, quella in si bemolle maggiore. Si tratta di una sonata estremamente lunga, una delle più lunghe mai scritte, e Richter la suonò con il tempo più lento che io abbia mai sentito, rendendola di conseguenza ancora più lunga. A questo punto mi sembra il caso di fare una doppia confessione: innanzitutto, anche se a molti sembrerà un'eresia, sono ben lungi dall'essere un patito di Schubert e faccio fatica ad abituarmi alle strutture ripetitive tipiche di gran parte della sua musica; l'idea di dover restar fermo ad ascoltare i suoi interminabili tentativi mi irrita spaventosamente, è una tortura. Per di più detesto assistere ai concerti e preferisco ascoltare musica registrata nella solitudine di casa mia, dove nessun elemento visivo viene a inserirsi nel processo uditivo distraendolo. Ho confessato queste cose per dire che, quando sentii che Richter cominciava questa sonata con un tempo così incredibilmente rallentato, mi preparai a passare un'oretta alquanto agitata a contorcermi sulla poltrona. Ebbene, per tutta l'ora che effettivamente durò mi trovai in uno stato che non posso descrivere altrimenti se non come quello di una trance ipnotica. Tutti i pregiudizi sulle strutture ripetitive di Schubert erano scomparsi; tutti i dettagli musicali, che fino ad allora m'erano apparsi come appartenenti alla sfera dell'ornamentazione, assumevano improvvisamente l'aspetto di elementi organici. Avevo l'impressione di essere testimone dell'unione di due qualità apparentemente inconciliabili: un intenso calcolo analitico, che si rivelava però attraverso una spontaneità paragonabile all'improvvisazione, e in quell'istante - cosa che mi è stata ulteriormente confermata a più riprese ascoltando le incisioni di Richter - compresi di essere davanti a uno degli uomini con la più forte capacità di comunicazione che il mondo musicale abbia prodotto nel nostro tempo.
'I lost my breath… After that we played several concert tours in Europe performing Sonatas from Hindemith and Britten along with Shostakovich. The last one held special meaning for Richter: it was the last piece of the composer, his tragic epitaph.'
"R i c h t e r"
Exquisite, quick and strong,
Like racehorses. Rather,
A comparison I cannot find.
He makes one look at music,
to guess at its portents
in face, figure, mimicry, and gesture.
Having not seen Richter you lose something
Of inspiration and mastery,
As in letters
You lose the sense of interaction.
Men of transistors and tape players,
We’ve grown accustomed to carry music with us
And adapt it to our dwelling.
But Richter builds music in the hall
And returns music to music.
Hark to the face of Richter,
to the hands of the contemplative horseman,
Guide to the horses carved from sound...
Thus, while the chariots slow their pace
on the descent from the horizon,
Helios himself harkens to the singing
of the black swan of Apollo
with the wing thrown back.
Труды по русской и славянской филологии. Литературоведение VIII.
Jaan Kross and Russian Culture.
DAVID SAMOILOV’S POEM “RICHTER”
AND ITS TRANSLATION BY JAAN KROSS*
As noted by the commentators of the David Samoilov volume of the “Library of a Poet” collection, Samoilov’s poem “Richter” was written in 1980 and origi-nally published on January 9, 1981 in the newspaper “Literary Russia” («Литературная Россия») as “To Richter” [Примечания: 706]. It was also included in the poetry anthology “The Gulf” (1981).
Even in his youth, Svyatoslav Teofilovich Richter (1915–1997), the brilliant Russian pianist of German heritage, became a legendary, almost mythological personality in the minds of his contemporaries, thanks not only to the magnitude of his remarkable musical talent, but also to his extraordinary personal qualities. On the one hand, the text that is the focus of this article fits in with Samoilov’s later works, in which he writes about artists (and not only about poets, but also painters, musicians, etc). Instead of this, in this case particular attention is drawn to Samoilov’s verses that refer specifically to music and the lyrical hero’s perception of music. It is worthwhile to consider not only the works of the 1970s and 1980s, but also earlier texts, since despite the im-portance of the “musical theme” to Samoilov (see, for example: [Сташенко]), he wrote many fewer poems about musicians and music than about poets and poetry. This article will take into account this wider context of Samoilov’s work only when absolutely necessary; the main focus will be a close semantic analysis of the poem of interest. Here it is in full:
* The article was written under the research theme TFLGR 0469 “Reception of Russian Literature in Estonia in the 20th Century: from the Interpretation to Translation”.
Крыло рояля. Руки Рихтера,
Изысканные, быстрые и сильные,
Как скаковые лошади. Точнее
Сравненья не умею подыскать.
Он заставляет музыку смотреть,
Угадывать ее предвестье
В лице, фигуре, мимике и жесте.
Не видя Рихтера теряешь что-то
От вдохновения и мастерства,
Как в письмах
Утрачиваешь что-то от общенья.
Транзисторщики и магнитофонцы,
Мы музыку с собой таскать привыкли
И приспосабливать ее к жилью.
А Рихтер музыку возводит в зал
И возвращает музыку в музыку.
Прислушаемся к Рихтерову лику,
К рукам задумчивого ездока,
Вожатому коней, изваянных из звука…
Так, колесницы умедляя ход
На спуске с небосклона,
Сам Гелиос внимает, как поет,
Черный лебедь Аполлона
[Самойлов 2006: 287–288].
1“Richter” — The wing of the grand piano. Richter’s hands, / Exquisite, quick and strong, / Like racehorses. Rather, / A comparison I cannot find. / He makes one look at music, / to guess at its portents / in face, figure, mimicry, and gesture. / Having not seen Richter you lose something / Of inspiration and mastery, / As in letters / You lose the sense of interaction. / Men of transistors and tape players, / We’ve grown accustomed to carry music with us / And adapt it to our dwelling. / But Richter builds music in the hall / And returns music to music. / Hark to the face of Richter, / to the hands of the contemplative horseman, / Guide to the horses carved from sound... / Thus, while the chariots slow their pace / on the descent from the horizon, / Helios himself harkens to the singing / of the black swan of Apollo / with the wing thrown back.
Tsypin deftly summarized a whole list of the views of his peers regarding the visuality of Richter’s playing. For instance, among many others, he cites the statements of Richter’s teacher, Heinrich Neuhaus, and renowned pianist Vera Gornostaeva, Richter’s younger peer and professor at the Moscow Conservatory. From the brochure we read: “Richter is an artist who creates exclusively alive, nuanced, and characteristically precise soundscapes. Emanating from the hands of the pianist, they strike listeners as something absolutely real, almost absolutely tangible, like something distinctly visible in every edge and contour, almost “substantive”, stereoscopically voluminous” [Цыпин: 20].
The statements of Richter’s peers are congruous with another important motif that dominates the second part of the poem: the freedom of the pianist’s art from all that is “everyday”, “utilitarian”, or not of true value (compare, for example: “…he never knew, and as a matter of principle didn’t want to know the everyday, “worldly”, vanities surrounding music” [Ibid: 12]). This contrast of Richter, who frees music from “vanities”, to other performers who don’t understand music’s fundamental principles, can be found in Neuhaus’s 1957 essay about Richter: “In this regard I am compelled to recall the words of my student, Jakov Zak, after one of Svyatoslav Richter’s concerts in the Grand Hall of the Conservatory. He said something like this: ‘In the world there is music that is pristine, sublime, and clean, simple and clear, like nature; people came and started to decorate music, draw patterns on it, dress it up in masks and costumes, and distort its meaning in every way. Then Svyatoslav appeared, and with one movement of his hand wiped away all that excess, and music became clear again, simple and pure’” [Нейгауз: 189–190] (the first edition of Neuhaus’s diaries, notes, and articles was published in 1975, and so also may have been accessible to Samoilov when he composed “Richter”). Compare also musicologist and critic Leonid Gakkel’s characterization: “Many, I think, say to him the lines of Thomas Mann: ‘the piano is a direct and sovereign agent of music as such, music as pure spirituality, that’s why one must master it’ (“Doctor Faust”). That is why Richter has mastered it, the only reason!” [Гаккель].
The next layer of meaning in “Richter” is connected to a reference to a poem of Boris Pasternak: “the second-to-last genius”, as Samoilov puts it 2. The image of the pianist carried aloft into the space above the earth can be found in Pasternak’s well-known poem “Music” (1956). Specifically, this is a poetic reference to Alexander Nikolaevich Skryabin, whom Pasternak likened to God in “Safe Conduct” and in “People and Positions”. As is well known, this comparison to Skryabin was already widespread at the beginning of the 1910s;
2Regarding the role of Pasternak’s poetry in the creative work of Samoilov, see: [Немзер: 33–35].
it is recorded, for example, in Balmont’s sonnet “Elf” (1916), which was dedi-cated to the author of “The Poem of Ecstasy”: «И шли толпы́. И был певучим гром. / И человеку бог был двойником. / Так Скрябина я видел за ро-ялью» 3 [Бальмонт: 422].
Analyzing the autobiographical layer of Pasternak’s poem “Music”, Boris Aronovich Katz writes, “…the piano is equated with God’s covenant. But, by the way, if the poem’s hero does not feel like God, then at the very least he is king of the world, humbly called a resident…” [Кац: 28]. Compare:
Они тащили вверх рояль
Над ширью городского моря,
Как с заповедями скрижаль
На каменное плоскогорье.
Жилец шестого этажа
На землю посмотрел с балкона,
Как бы в руках ее держа
И ею властвуя законно4
Samoilov’s poem also speaks about the ascension of the pianist above those around him (the listeners), while he himself is clearly totally equated with divinity; however, in contrast to Pasternak, here the “heavenly” hue is fashioned entirely with ancient images (Helios, “Apollo’s swan”). It is of note that Richter himself was associated with the ancient world in the consciousness of his con-temporaries (see: [Цыпин: 27]).
Finally, the third layer of meaning in the poem is connected to Samoilov’s other works. In 1979, Samoilov finished an article dedicated to Pasternak and entitled “The Second-to-last Genius”, in which the description of the older poet’s reading of verses not only corresponds with visual imagery, but builds itself on an entire series of images that coincide with the description of Rich-ter’s playing in the poem of 1980:
“It seems that only in Russia do poets know how to read verses from the stage. Pasternak in black, looking like a musician, sang out verses through his nose. His reading was amazing. His jutting lips fully and sculpturally outlined the sound. And that rare visibility of sound of Pasternak’s verses happened. Probably this is how those exquisite horses, the houyhnhnms of Jonathan Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travels’, would read poetry” <italics here and hereafter mine. — L. P.> [Са-
3“And the multitudes went. And there was melodious thunder. / And god was the man’s twin. / Thus Skryabin I saw at the piano” [Бальмонт: 422].
4 They lugged the piano up / above the expanse of the sea of the city, / Like a tablet with commandments / on a stone plateau. / The resident of the sixth floor / Looked at the earth from the balcony, / As if he held it in his hands / and ruled it by law.
мойлов 2000: 318]. Compare to “Richter”: “The hands of Richter / Exquisite, quick and strong, / Like galloping horses”; “He makes one look at music, / To guess at its portents / In face, figure, mimicry, and gesture”; “Hark to the face of Richter, / to the hands of the contemplative horseman, / Guide to the horses carved from sound” [Самойлов 2006: 287].
In this case one can speak of the direct subcontext of “Richter” in Samoilov’s article about Pasternak. Clearly, in this poem, in addition to a portrait of a great musician that by all appearances can be traced back mainly to Neuhaus’ and other contemporary musicians’ descriptions of Richter, there are grounds for seeing a portrait also of Pasternak. Samoilov had a complicated relationship with the poet, which gradually changed after the death of the author of “Doctor Zhivago” in the direction of unequivocal acceptance and admiration. So, for example, in Samoilov’s work of the 1970s and 1980s Pasternak became a symbol of “the exalted”, freed from the worldliness of art. In “The Second-to-last Genius”, in explaining to the reader why “Doctor Zhivago” did not make the right impression on Pasternak’s contemporaries when it came out, Samoilov writes: “At that time ‘Doctor Zhivago’ was incomprehensible to both readers and authorities. It’s possible that the Nobel Prize and all that past hullabaloo surrounding it, having hastened Pasternak’s death, knocked down and ob-scured the true meaning of the novel. The book attracted attention to all the hype raised around it. And at that time, I recall, few people liked it… At that time we thought about morality on a political level. That’s why Solzhenytsyn’s novels were closer and crowded out Pasternak’s wonderful novel” [Самойлов 2000: 318].
In his later poetry also Samoilov mused upon possible perceptions of his poetry and the creative works of today’s generation of poets “without hulla-baloo” (that is, outside political, ideological, and literary arguments): «Пусть нас увидят без возни, / Без козней, розни и надсады, / Тогда и скажется: “Они — Из поздней пушкинской плеяды”. / Я нас возвысить не хочу. / Мы — послушники ясновидца... / Пока в России Пушкин длится, / Метелям не задуть свечу»5, (1978) [Самойлов 2006]. In the 1970s and subsequently, in the eyes of Samoilov, Pasternak became that “high” artist that managed to free himself, while still alive, from the political pressure of the times, accepting all that happens as historical fact: “It <“Doctor Zhivago”. — L. P.> discusses not that which would have been, if nothing had been, but the neces-
5“Let them see us without hullabaloo, / without intrigue, hostility and strife, / Then it will be said, ‘They are of the latter pleiad of Pushkin’. / I don’t want to elevate us. / We are novices of that seer... / While Pushkin prevails in Russia, / The blizzard can’t extinguish the candle”.
- sity of understanding one’s time. And without judging that time (who has the right to do so!) to live fully and with dignity, that is, to be ‘the music in the ice’” [Самойлов 2000: 319].
It is obvious that Svyatoslav Richter (the student of Boris Pasternak’s close friend, Heinrich Neuhaus) in Samoilov’s mind became a sort of alter ego to Pasternak, not only because in his art he achieved that hypostasis of the poet, which Pasternak had consciously rejected in his early youth (as we know, Pasternak consequentially rejected pianism and composition), but also because Richter’s performing, artistic character was close to Pasternak’s character as Samoilov understood it. As Richter’s many colleagues and contemporaries bore witness, he successfully didn’t notice or ignored the political regime: “With his back completely turned to politics, being always outside the regime, outside authority, he ingeniously shielded himself from it;” “When he decided something needed to be done, Slava did it. He had no fear before the regime. He simply stood with his back to it” [Горностаева]. In this way Richter’s attitude toward the regime became, from his contemporaries’ point of view, one of the manifestations of his freedom from “worldliness”. It is just such a posi-tion that Samoilov later dreams for Pasternak, that spokesman for “high art”, free of worldliness, although Samoilov understands that, at least for him, this was unattainable during his lifetime. For just this reason Samoilov partially identifies himself with the collective “we” that profanes and trivializes music.
Now let’s turn to the poem’s translation by the esteemed Estonian novelist Jaan Kross, who was bound by friendship to Samoilov for many years. In the bilingual collection “Bottomless Moments”, published in Tallinn in 19906, the poem “Richter”, from the point of view of the original author and the translator, is representative of the extremely important theme of (artistic) culture that, first and foremost, unites two poets of different nationalities. The poem is writ-ten in blanc iambs (rhymes are is found only in two places); this peculiarity of the metric structure allows Jaan Kross to translate most of the verses very close to the original, frequently not even changing the order of the words in a line (“Käed on Richteril / nii kaunid, väledad ja tugevad”; “Sa teda nägemata kaotad palju / nii meisterlikkuses kui vaimuhoos” [Самойлов, Кросс: 39]). Compositionally, the poem may be divided into two unequal parts. In the first part, Samoilov’s lyrical hero shares with the reader his impressions of the visual appearance of the great pianist, his relationship to music, and contrasts Richter with modern audiophiles (14 lines). The conversational tone of this part ap-
6Regarding the collection’s structure and other translations of Samoilov by Jaan Kross see: [Сте-панищева: 2010; Степанищева: 2011].
pears also in the fragmentary syntax (14 lines arranged within seven complete sentences) and enjambment (the poem’s rhythmic divisions often do not cor-respond to the syntactic divisions). In the second part (10 lines) there are only three sentences, and the poetic tone shifts from fragmentary to more fluid and melodic. Here the visual impressions of Richter’s playing become concrete; in the eyes of the author, the performer is associated with the mythological figure of Helios the sun god. The piano also undergoes metamorphosis and becomes the black, singing swan of Apollo. In this way the performer (Helios, seated on the chariot and driving the horses that are Richter’s hands) is dis-tanced from his own performance and becomes a listener. In this case the poem, it seems, reflects the opinion, widespread among Richter’s contemporar-ies and undoubtedly known to Samoilov, about the “artistic objectivity” or “photographic reliability” of Richter’s performance art. The pianist himself believed that the performer must fully submit himself to the composer being performed and maximally reduce his own individuality.
This second part underwent substantial changes in translation to Estonian. Kross strove to preserve Samoilov’s contrast of the two parts of the poem at the level of rhythm and syntax (the second part of the poem as described above also consists of three sentences in translation). Nonetheless, the enjambment here is nearly as frequent as in the first part of the poem (compare, for example: «Сам Гелиос внимает, как поет, / Крыло откинув, / черный лебедь Аполлона» and “jääb Helioski kuulama, / kui laulab / Apollo / mustatiivuline luik” [Са-мойлов, Кросс: 43]). However, the most serious change occurs on the lexical-semantic level of the translation. First, from the translator’s point of view, the performer bends the music being performed to his own will, literally, “makes it docile in nature and responsive to the hands of a quiet rider”: “ja teeb ta ülevaks ja luulekaks/ ja enda loomusele kuulekaks/ ning altiks vaikse sõitja kätele, / ja sõitjale, kes rihmab hobuseid, / mis helist voolitud…” [Ibid: 39–43], at the moment when for Samoilov music becomes an objective fact, and the hands of the pianist are simply a tool, an instrument for the objectification of music, for returning it to music. Given this condition, the Helios in translation is not a personification of the pianist listening to his own playing, but becomes an additional character listening to the playing of “the rider”.
The changes in the translation noted above can likely be explained by the fact that Jaan Kross did not reconstruct the intertextual space within which Samoilov composed his poem. Nonetheless, a range of important ideas in this poem were successfully transferred. Above all, the translation depicts an artist to whom is opened the freedom of handling materials. In contrast to an artist of the word, such freedom is always (independent of time) open to a great musician. This idea is emphasized by Jaan Kross in his translation, which, while changing the main idea of the original author, nevertheless closely preserves the aesthetic characteristics of late Samoilov.
Бальмонт: БальмонтК. Стихотворения. Л., 1969.
Гаккель: ГаккельЛ. Пианистический Ленинград //
Горностаева: ГорностаеваВ. Само имя его символично //
Кац:КацБ. А. Пробужденный музыкой // «Раскат импровизаций…». Музыка в творчест-ве, судьбе и в доме Бориса Пастернака / Сост., вступит. ст. и коммент. Б. А. Каца. Л., 1991.
Нейгауз: Нейгауз Г. Г. Святослав Рихтер // Размышления, воспоминания, дневники. Из-бранные статьи. Письма к родителям. М., 1983. Изд. 2-е.
Немзер: Немзер А. Лирика Давида Самойлова // Самойлов Давид. Стихотворения. СПб., 2006.
Примечания: Немзер А. С., ТумаркинВ. И. Примечания // Самойлов Давид. Стихотворе-ния. СПб., 2006.
Пастернак:Пастернак Б. Стихотворения и поэмы. Л., 1990.
Самойлов 2000: СамойловД. Перебирая наши даты. Мой 20 век. СПб., 2000.
Самойлов 2006: СамойловД. Стихотворения. СПб., 2006.
Самойлов, Кросс: Самойлов Д., КроссЯ. Põhjatud silmapilgud / Бездонные мгновенья. Тал-линн, 1990.
Сташенко: СташенкоТ. Полисемантизм образов в книге стихов Д. Самойлова «Улица Тоо-минга» // Лотмановский сборник 4. Материалы Лотмановского конгресса в Тарту. Моск-ва (в печати).
Степанищева 2010: Степанищева Т.Стихотворение Давида Самойлова «Дом-музей» в пе-реводе Яана Кросса (Из сборника «Бездонные мгновения») // Блоковский сборник XVIII. Россия и Эстония в XX веке: диалог культур. Тарту, 2010.
Степанищева 2011: Степанищева Т.«И ему показалась Россия…». Баллада Д. Самойлова и ее перевод Я. Кросса // Humaniora: Litterae Russicae. Studia Russica Helsingiensia et Tar-tuensia. Мифология культурного пространства. Сб. к 80-летию Сергея Геннадиевича Исако-ва. Тарту, 2011.
Цыпин: ЦыпинГ. М.Святослав Рихтер. Творческий портрет. М., 1987.